Analyze major components of post 1000 A.D. long distance trade considering diplomacy and missionary impulse.(SYED)
Trade and travel was a huge phenomenon between the years 1000 and 1500 c.e.
- Agriculture in the regions around the Indian Ocean basin and Mediterranean Basin had increased, causing the regions to travel and trade more frequently. -- As time went on, technology improved, which led to an increase in traffic in the sea-lanes of the Indian Ocean as well as the South China Sea.
- Long distance travel became more and more popular following these events. - - technologies, religious faiths, and diseases.
- The spread of pathogens-PLACK,wait I mean PLAGUE
Mongol and Nomadic People Affect on Long Distance Trade and Travel
- Both played a huge political role in the cross-cultural communication.
- As nomadic peoples took over more regions, they were providing pathways for merchants, diplomats, missionaries, and other travelers.
- The Mongols campaigns caused economic problems throughout Eurasia beginning in the early and middle decades of the thirteen century.
- Mongol forces took over the Song and Abbasid dynasty, which launched a long period of economic decline in South west Asia.
- Conquerors ruined cities and damaged the irrigation systems.
- On the bright side, the Mongols actually brought political foundation to the increase in long-distance trade along the silk roads.
- The main reasons for long distance travel were missionary activity, diplomacy, and of course trade.
- Merchants relied on two different trade routes, one being the silk roads and the other being sea lanes in the Indian Ocean.
- Silk roads were mainly used to transport high value goods such as silk textiles and precious stones.
- Heavier items such as steel, stone, coral, and building materials were transported by ship in the Indian Ocean.
- Trading cities began to increase in population as trade increased in the Indian Ocean basin.
- Attracted sellers, buyers, brokers, and bankers from all over.
- Merchant communities began to fill valuable trading ports, or cities.
- Khanbaliq, Hangzhou, Quanzhou, Maleka, Cambey, Samarkand, Hormuz, Baghdad, Caffa, Cairo, Alexandria, Kilwa, Constantinople, Venice, Timbuktu, etc.
- Emporiums were formed when trading ports had a valuable location, kept good order, and avoided levying excessive custom fees. For example, Maleka's location near the Straight of Maleka, it's safe market, and its levied reasonable fees on goods that were exchanged there caused Maleka to become a major "clearinghouse" other eastern Indian Ocean.
POLITICAL AND DIPLOMATIC TRAVELS/Missionary campaigns(SYED)
POLITICAL AND DIPLOMATIC TRAVELS
- Islamic values spread not only through the efforts of legal scholars, but also through the missionary activities of Sufi mystics.
- By taking a Flexible approach to their missions, the Sufis spread Islamic values without facing the resistance that unyielding and doctrinaire campaigns would likely have provoked.
- The most ambitious missions sought to convert Mongols and Chinese to Roman Catholic Christianity. Many of the Catholic priests who traveled to China probably intended to serve the needs of these communities, but some if them also sought to attract converts.
- Most active of the Roman Catholic missionaries in China was John of Montecorvino. He was an Italian Franciscan who went to China in 1291.
- He became the first arch-bishop of Khanbaliq. He took in young boys from Mongol and Chinese families, baptized them and taught them Latin and Roman ritual